Assignment 0

Part of your course grade is determined by participation, which can include both in-class participation as well as discussion here on the course webpage.  Therefore, your first assignment is to:

  1. create an account, and
  2. leave a comment on this post containing your favorite mathematical formula (see below).
To make things interesting, your comment should include a description of your favorite mathematical formula typeset in $\LaTeX$.  If you don’t know how to use $\LaTeX$ this is a great opportunity to learn — a very basic introduction can be found here.  (And if you don’t have a favorite mathematical formula, this is a great time to pick one!)

56 thoughts on “Assignment 0”

      1. Euler’s identity—beautiful. This fact will have important geometric meaning for us, especially in our study of surface parameterization. Basically it lets us represent rotations via unit complex numbers, and hence interpret multiplication by any complex number as a “stretch-rotation” (rotation composed with uniform scaling).

  1. $\mathbb{P}[A|B] = \frac{\mathbb{P}[A] \mathbb{P}[B|A]}{\mathbb{P}[B]}$

    I know it is probably not too relevant to this course, but I’ve always been fascinated by the myriad implications behind this otherwise unassuming formula! Oh I also adore Euler’s identity.

    1. Stokes’ Theorem—fantastic. We will be making good use of this theorem in our class. In fact, it is the basic idea behind how we go from smooth to discrete differential forms.

  2. The Lagrangian of the Standard Model of Particle Physics is pretty neat.
    http://nuclear.ucdavis.edu/~tgutierr/files/stmL1.html

    $-\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\nu}g^{a}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}g^{a}_{\mu}
    -g_{s}f^{abc}\partial_{\mu}g^{a}_{\nu}g^{b}_{\mu}g^{c}_{\nu}
    -\frac{1}{4}g^{2}_{s}f^{abc}f^{ade}g^{b}_{\mu}g^{c}_{\nu}g^{d}_{\mu}g^{e}_{\nu}
    +\frac{1}{2}ig^{2}_{s}(\bar{q}^{\sigma}_{i}\gamma^{\mu}q^{\sigma}_{j})g^{a}_{\mu}
    +\bar{G}^{a}\partial^{2}G^{a}+g_{s}f^{abc}\partial_{\mu}\bar{G}^{a}G^{b}g^{c}_{\mu}
    -\partial_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu}-M^{2}W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\mu}
    -\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\nu}Z^{0}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}Z^{0}_{\mu}-\frac{1}{2c^{2}_{w}}
    M^{2}Z^{0}_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\mu}
    -\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\mu}A_{\nu}\partial_{\mu}A_{\nu}
    -\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\mu}H\partial_{\mu}H-\frac{1}{2}m^{2}_{h}H^{2}
    -\partial_{\mu}\phi^{+}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{-}-M^{2}\phi^{+}\phi^{-}
    -\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{0}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{0}-\frac{1}{2c^{2}_{w}}M\phi^{0}\phi^{0}
    -\beta_{h}[\frac{2M^{2}}{g^{2}}+\frac{2M}{g}H+\frac{1}{2}(H^{2}+\phi^{0}\phi^{0}+2\phi^{+}\phi^{-%%@
    })]+\frac{2M^{4}}{g^{2}}\alpha_{h}
    -igc_{w}[\partial_{\nu}Z^{0}_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\nu}-W^{+}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu})
    -Z^{0}_{\nu}(W^{+}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu}-W^{-}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu})
    +Z^{0}_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\nu}\partial_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu}-W^{-}_{\nu}\partial_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu})]
    -igs_{w}[\partial_{\nu}A_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\nu}-W^{+}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu})
    -A_{\nu}(W^{+}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu}-W^{-}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu})
    +A_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\nu}\partial_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu}-W^{-}_{\nu}\partial_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu})]
    -\frac{1}{2}g^{2}W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\mu}W^{+}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\nu}+\frac{1}{2}g^{2}
    W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\nu}
    +g^2c^{2}_{w}(Z^{0}_{\mu}W^{+}_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\nu}-Z^{0}_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\mu}W^{+}_{\nu}
    W^{-}_{\nu})
    +g^2s^{2}_{w}(A_{\mu}W^{+}_{\mu}A_{\nu}W^{-}_{\nu}-A_{\mu}A_{\mu}W^{+}_{\nu}
    W^{-}_{\nu})
    +g^{2}s_{w}c_{w}[A_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\nu}(W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\nu}-W^{+}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu})-%%@
    2A_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\mu}W^{+}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\nu}]
    -g\alpha[H^3+H\phi^{0}\phi^{0}+2H\phi^{+}\phi^{-}]
    -\frac{1}{8}g^{2}\alpha_{h}[H^4+(\phi^{0})^{4}+4(\phi^{+}\phi^{-})^{2}+4(\phi^{0})^{2}
    \phi^{+}\phi^{-}+4H^{2}\phi^{+}\phi^{-}+2(\phi^{0})^{2}H^{2}]
    -gMW^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\mu}H-\frac{1}{2}g\frac{M}{c^{2}_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\mu}H
    -\frac{1}{2}ig[W^{+}_{\mu}(\phi^{0}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{-}-\phi^{-}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{0})
    -W^{-}_{\mu}(\phi^{0}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{+}-\phi^{+}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{0})]
    +\frac{1}{2}g[W^{+}_{\mu}(H\partial_{\mu}\phi^{-}-\phi^{-}\partial_{\mu}H)
    -W^{-}_{\mu}(H\partial_{\mu}\phi^{+}-\phi^{+}\partial_{\mu}H)]
    +\frac{1}{2}g\frac{1}{c_{w}}(Z^{0}_{\mu}(H\partial_{\mu}\phi^{0}-\phi^{0}\partial_{\mu}H)
    -ig\frac{s^{2}_{w}}{c_{w}}MZ^{0}_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}-W^{-}_{\mu}\phi^{+})
    +igs_{w}MA_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}-W^{-}_{\mu}\phi^{+})
    -ig\frac{1-2c^{2}_{w}}{2c_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}(\phi^{+}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{-}-\phi^{-%%@
    }\partial_{\mu}\phi^{+})
    +igs_{w}A_{\mu}(\phi^{+}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{-}-\phi^{-}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{+})
    -\frac{1}{4}g^{2}W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\mu}[H^{2}+(\phi^{0})^{2}+2\phi^{+}\phi^{-}]
    -\frac{1}{4}g^{2}\frac{1}{c^{2}_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\mu}[H^{2}+(\phi^{0})^{2}+2(2s^{2}_{w}-%%@
    1)^{2}\phi^{+}\phi^{-}]
    -\frac{1}{2}g^{2}\frac{s^{2}_{w}}{c_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}\phi^{0}(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}+W^{-%%@
    }_{\mu}\phi^{+})
    -\frac{1}{2}ig^{2}\frac{s^{2}_{w}}{c_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}H(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}-W^{-}_{\mu}\phi^{+})
    +\frac{1}{2}g^{2}s_{w}A_{\mu}\phi^{0}(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}+W^{-}_{\mu}\phi^{+})
    +\frac{1}{2}ig^{2}s_{w}A_{\mu}H(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}-W^{-}_{\mu}\phi^{+})
    -g^{2}\frac{s_{w}}{c_{w}}(2c^{2}_{w}-1)Z^{0}_{\mu}A_{\mu}\phi^{+}\phi^{-}-%%@
    g^{1}s^{2}_{w}A_{\mu}A_{\mu}\phi^{+}\phi^{-}
    -\bar{e}^{\lambda}(\gamma\partial+m^{\lambda}_{e})e^{\lambda}
    -\bar{\nu}^{\lambda}\gamma\partial\nu^{\lambda}
    -\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}(\gamma\partial+m^{\lambda}_{u})u^{\lambda}_{j}
    -\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}(\gamma\partial+m^{\lambda}_{d})d^{\lambda}_{j}
    +igs_{w}A_{\mu}[-(\bar{e}^{\lambda}\gamma^{\mu}
    e^{\lambda})+\frac{2}{3}(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{\mu} %%@
    u^{\lambda}_{j})-\frac{1}{3}(\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{\mu}
    d^{\lambda}_{j})]
    +\frac{ig}{4c_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}
    [(\bar{\nu}^{\lambda}\gamma^{\mu}(1+\gamma^{5})\nu^{\lambda})+
    (\bar{e}^{\lambda}\gamma^{\mu}(4s^{2}_{w}-1-\gamma^{5})e^{\lambda})+
    (\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{\mu}(\frac{4}{3}s^{2}_{w}-1-\gamma^{5})u^{\lambda}_{j})+
    (\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{\mu}(1-\frac{8}{3}s^{2}_{w}-\gamma^{5})d^{\lambda}_{j})]
    +\frac{ig}{2\sqrt{2}}W^{+}_{\mu}[(\bar{\nu}^{\lambda}\gamma^{\mu}(1+\gamma^{5})e^{\lambda})
    +(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{\mu}(1+\gamma^{5})C_{\lambda\kappa}d^{\kappa}_{j})]
    +\frac{ig}{2\sqrt{2}}W^{-}_{\mu}[(\bar{e}^{\lambda}\gamma^{\mu}(1+\gamma^{5})\nu^{\lambda})
    +(\bar{d}^{\kappa}_{j}C^{\dagger}_{\lambda\kappa}\gamma^{\mu}(1+\gamma^{5})u^{\lambda}_{j})]
    +\frac{ig}{2\sqrt{2}}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{e}}{M}
    [-\phi^{+}(\bar{\nu}^{\lambda}(1-\gamma^{5})e^{\lambda})
    +\phi^{-}(\bar{e}^{\lambda}(1+\gamma^{5})\nu^{\lambda})]
    -\frac{g}{2}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{e}}{M}[H(\bar{e}^{\lambda}e^{\lambda})
    +i\phi^{0}(\bar{e}^{\lambda}\gamma^{5}e^{\lambda})]
    +\frac{ig}{2M\sqrt{2}}\phi^{+}
    [-m^{\kappa}_{d}(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}C_{\lambda\kappa}(1-\gamma^{5})d^{\kappa}_{j})
    +m^{\lambda}_{u}(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}C_{\lambda\kappa}(1+\gamma^{5})d^{\kappa}_{j}]
    +\frac{ig}{2M\sqrt{2}}\phi^{-}
    [m^{\lambda}_{d}(\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}C^{\dagger}_{\lambda\kappa}(1+\gamma^{5})u^{\kappa}_{j})
    -m^{\kappa}_{u}(\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}C^{\dagger}_{\lambda\kappa}(1-\gamma^{5})u^{\kappa}_{j}]
    -\frac{g}{2}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{u}}{M}H(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}u^{\lambda}_{j})
    -\frac{g}{2}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{d}}{M}H(\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}d^{\lambda}_{j})
    +\frac{ig}{2}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{u}}{M}\phi^{0}(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{5}u^{\lambda}_{j})
    -\frac{ig}{2}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{d}}{M}\phi^{0}(\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{5}d^{\lambda}_{j})
    +\bar{X}^{+}(\partial^{2}-M^{2})X^{+}+\bar{X}^{-}(\partial^{2}-M^{2})X^{-}
    +\bar{X}^{0}(\partial^{2}-\frac{M^{2}}{c^{2}_{w}})X^{0}+\bar{Y}\partial^{2}Y
    +igc_{w}W^{+}_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{0}X^{-}-\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{+}X^{0})
    +igs_{w}W^{+}_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{Y}X^{-}-\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{+}Y)
    +igc_{w}W^{-}_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{-}X^{0}-\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{0}X^{+})
    +igs_{w}W^{-}_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{-}Y-\partial_{\mu}\bar{Y}X^{+})
    +igc_{w}Z^{0}_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{+}X^{+}-\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{-}X^{-})
    +igs_{w}A_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{+}X^{+}-\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{-}X^{-})
    -\frac{1}{2}gM[\bar{X}^{+}X^{+}H+\bar{X}^{-}X^{-}H+\frac{1}{c^{2}_{w}}\bar{X}^{0}X^{0}H]
    +\frac{1-2c^{2}_{w}}{2c_{w}}igM[\bar{X}^{+}X^{0}\phi^{+}-\bar{X}^{-}X^{0}\phi^{-}]
    +\frac{1}{2c_{w}}igM[\bar{X}^{0}X^{-}\phi^{+}-\bar{X}^{0}X^{+}\phi^{-}]
    +igMs_{w}[\bar{X}^{0}X^{-}\phi^{+}-\bar{X}^{0}X^{+}\phi^{-}]
    +\frac{1}{2}igM[\bar{X}^{+}X^{+}\phi^{0}-\bar{X}^{-}X^{-}\phi^{0}]$

    1. I hope this one works.
      $-\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\nu}g^{a}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}g^{a}_{\mu}
      -g_{s}f^{abc}\partial_{\mu}g^{a}_{\nu}g^{b}_{\mu}g^{c}_{\nu}
      -\frac{1}{4}g^{2}_{s}f^{abc}f^{ade}g^{b}_{\mu}g^{c}_{\nu}g^{d}_{\mu}g^{e}_{\nu}
      +\frac{1}{2}ig^{2}_{s}(\bar{q}^{\sigma}_{i}\gamma^{\mu}q^{\sigma}_{j})g^{a}_{\mu}
      +\bar{G}^{a}\partial^{2}G^{a}+g_{s}f^{abc}\partial_{\mu}\bar{G}^{a}G^{b}g^{c}_{\mu}
      -\partial_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu}-M^{2}W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\mu}
      -\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\nu}Z^{0}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}Z^{0}_{\mu}-\frac{1}{2c^{2}_{w}}
      M^{2}Z^{0}_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\mu}
      -\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\mu}A_{\nu}\partial_{\mu}A_{\nu}
      -\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\mu}H\partial_{\mu}H-\frac{1}{2}m^{2}_{h}H^{2}
      -\partial_{\mu}\phi^{+}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{-}-M^{2}\phi^{+}\phi^{-}
      -\frac{1}{2}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{0}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{0}-\frac{1}{2c^{2}_{w}}M\phi^{0}\phi^{0}
      -\beta_{h}[\frac{2M^{2}}{g^{2}}+\frac{2M}{g}H+\frac{1}{2}(H^{2}+\phi^{0}\phi^{0}+2\phi^{+}\phi^{-%%@
      })]+\frac{2M^{4}}{g^{2}}\alpha_{h}
      -igc_{w}[\partial_{\nu}Z^{0}_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\nu}-W^{+}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu})
      -Z^{0}_{\nu}(W^{+}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu}-W^{-}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu})
      +Z^{0}_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\nu}\partial_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu}-W^{-}_{\nu}\partial_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu})]
      -igs_{w}[\partial_{\nu}A_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\nu}-W^{+}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu})
      -A_{\nu}(W^{+}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu}-W^{-}_{\mu}\partial_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu})
      +A_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\nu}\partial_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu}-W^{-}_{\nu}\partial_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu})]
      -\frac{1}{2}g^{2}W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\mu}W^{+}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\nu}+\frac{1}{2}g^{2}
      W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\nu}W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\nu}
      +g^2c^{2}_{w}(Z^{0}_{\mu}W^{+}_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\nu}-Z^{0}_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\mu}W^{+}_{\nu}
      W^{-}_{\nu})
      +g^2s^{2}_{w}(A_{\mu}W^{+}_{\mu}A_{\nu}W^{-}_{\nu}-A_{\mu}A_{\mu}W^{+}_{\nu}
      W^{-}_{\nu})
      +g^{2}s_{w}c_{w}[A_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\nu}(W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\nu}-W^{+}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\mu})-%%@
      2A_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\mu}W^{+}_{\nu}W^{-}_{\nu}]
      -g\alpha[H^3+H\phi^{0}\phi^{0}+2H\phi^{+}\phi^{-}]
      -\frac{1}{8}g^{2}\alpha_{h}[H^4+(\phi^{0})^{4}+4(\phi^{+}\phi^{-})^{2}+4(\phi^{0})^{2}
      \phi^{+}\phi^{-}+4H^{2}\phi^{+}\phi^{-}+2(\phi^{0})^{2}H^{2}]
      -gMW^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\mu}H-\frac{1}{2}g\frac{M}{c^{2}_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\mu}H
      -\frac{1}{2}ig[W^{+}_{\mu}(\phi^{0}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{-}-\phi^{-}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{0})
      -W^{-}_{\mu}(\phi^{0}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{+}-\phi^{+}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{0})]
      +\frac{1}{2}g[W^{+}_{\mu}(H\partial_{\mu}\phi^{-}-\phi^{-}\partial_{\mu}H)
      -W^{-}_{\mu}(H\partial_{\mu}\phi^{+}-\phi^{+}\partial_{\mu}H)]
      +\frac{1}{2}g\frac{1}{c_{w}}(Z^{0}_{\mu}(H\partial_{\mu}\phi^{0}-\phi^{0}\partial_{\mu}H)
      -ig\frac{s^{2}_{w}}{c_{w}}MZ^{0}_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}-W^{-}_{\mu}\phi^{+})
      +igs_{w}MA_{\mu}(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}-W^{-}_{\mu}\phi^{+})
      -ig\frac{1-2c^{2}_{w}}{2c_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}(\phi^{+}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{-}-\phi^{-%%@
      }\partial_{\mu}\phi^{+})
      +igs_{w}A_{\mu}(\phi^{+}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{-}-\phi^{-}\partial_{\mu}\phi^{+})
      -\frac{1}{4}g^{2}W^{+}_{\mu}W^{-}_{\mu}[H^{2}+(\phi^{0})^{2}+2\phi^{+}\phi^{-}]
      -\frac{1}{4}g^{2}\frac{1}{c^{2}_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}Z^{0}_{\mu}[H^{2}+(\phi^{0})^{2}+2(2s^{2}_{w}-%%@
      1)^{2}\phi^{+}\phi^{-}]
      -\frac{1}{2}g^{2}\frac{s^{2}_{w}}{c_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}\phi^{0}(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}+W^{-%%@
      }_{\mu}\phi^{+})
      -\frac{1}{2}ig^{2}\frac{s^{2}_{w}}{c_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}H(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}-W^{-}_{\mu}\phi^{+})
      +\frac{1}{2}g^{2}s_{w}A_{\mu}\phi^{0}(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}+W^{-}_{\mu}\phi^{+})
      +\frac{1}{2}ig^{2}s_{w}A_{\mu}H(W^{+}_{\mu}\phi^{-}-W^{-}_{\mu}\phi^{+})
      -g^{2}\frac{s_{w}}{c_{w}}(2c^{2}_{w}-1)Z^{0}_{\mu}A_{\mu}\phi^{+}\phi^{-}-%%@
      g^{1}s^{2}_{w}A_{\mu}A_{\mu}\phi^{+}\phi^{-}
      -\bar{e}^{\lambda}(\gamma\partial+m^{\lambda}_{e})e^{\lambda}
      -\bar{\nu}^{\lambda}\gamma\partial\nu^{\lambda}
      -\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}(\gamma\partial+m^{\lambda}_{u})u^{\lambda}_{j}
      -\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}(\gamma\partial+m^{\lambda}_{d})d^{\lambda}_{j}
      +igs_{w}A_{\mu}[-(\bar{e}^{\lambda}\gamma^{\mu}
      e^{\lambda})+\frac{2}{3}(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{\mu} %%@
      u^{\lambda}_{j})-\frac{1}{3}(\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{\mu}
      d^{\lambda}_{j})]
      +\frac{ig}{4c_{w}}Z^{0}_{\mu}
      [(\bar{\nu}^{\lambda}\gamma^{\mu}(1+\gamma^{5})\nu^{\lambda})+
      (\bar{e}^{\lambda}\gamma^{\mu}(4s^{2}_{w}-1-\gamma^{5})e^{\lambda})+
      (\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{\mu}(\frac{4}{3}s^{2}_{w}-1-\gamma^{5})u^{\lambda}_{j})+
      (\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{\mu}(1-\frac{8}{3}s^{2}_{w}-\gamma^{5})d^{\lambda}_{j})]
      +\frac{ig}{2\sqrt{2}}W^{+}_{\mu}[(\bar{\nu}^{\lambda}\gamma^{\mu}(1+\gamma^{5})e^{\lambda})
      +(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{\mu}(1+\gamma^{5})C_{\lambda\kappa}d^{\kappa}_{j})]
      +\frac{ig}{2\sqrt{2}}W^{-}_{\mu}[(\bar{e}^{\lambda}\gamma^{\mu}(1+\gamma^{5})\nu^{\lambda})
      +(\bar{d}^{\kappa}_{j}C^{\dagger}_{\lambda\kappa}\gamma^{\mu}(1+\gamma^{5})u^{\lambda}_{j})]
      +\frac{ig}{2\sqrt{2}}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{e}}{M}
      [-\phi^{+}(\bar{\nu}^{\lambda}(1-\gamma^{5})e^{\lambda})
      +\phi^{-}(\bar{e}^{\lambda}(1+\gamma^{5})\nu^{\lambda})]
      -\frac{g}{2}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{e}}{M}[H(\bar{e}^{\lambda}e^{\lambda})
      +i\phi^{0}(\bar{e}^{\lambda}\gamma^{5}e^{\lambda})]
      +\frac{ig}{2M\sqrt{2}}\phi^{+}
      [-m^{\kappa}_{d}(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}C_{\lambda\kappa}(1-\gamma^{5})d^{\kappa}_{j})
      +m^{\lambda}_{u}(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}C_{\lambda\kappa}(1+\gamma^{5})d^{\kappa}_{j}]
      +\frac{ig}{2M\sqrt{2}}\phi^{-}
      [m^{\lambda}_{d}(\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}C^{\dagger}_{\lambda\kappa}(1+\gamma^{5})u^{\kappa}_{j})
      -m^{\kappa}_{u}(\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}C^{\dagger}_{\lambda\kappa}(1-\gamma^{5})u^{\kappa}_{j}]
      -\frac{g}{2}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{u}}{M}H(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}u^{\lambda}_{j})
      -\frac{g}{2}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{d}}{M}H(\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}d^{\lambda}_{j})
      +\frac{ig}{2}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{u}}{M}\phi^{0}(\bar{u}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{5}u^{\lambda}_{j})
      -\frac{ig}{2}\frac{m^{\lambda}_{d}}{M}\phi^{0}(\bar{d}^{\lambda}_{j}\gamma^{5}d^{\lambda}_{j})
      +\bar{X}^{+}(\partial^{2}-M^{2})X^{+}+\bar{X}^{-}(\partial^{2}-M^{2})X^{-}
      +\bar{X}^{0}(\partial^{2}-\frac{M^{2}}{c^{2}_{w}})X^{0}+\bar{Y}\partial^{2}Y
      +igc_{w}W^{+}_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{0}X^{-}-\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{+}X^{0})
      +igs_{w}W^{+}_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{Y}X^{-}-\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{+}Y)
      +igc_{w}W^{-}_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{-}X^{0}-\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{0}X^{+})
      +igs_{w}W^{-}_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{-}Y-\partial_{\mu}\bar{Y}X^{+})
      +igc_{w}Z^{0}_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{+}X^{+}-\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{-}X^{-})
      +igs_{w}A_{\mu}(\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{+}X^{+}-\partial_{\mu}\bar{X}^{-}X^{-})
      -\frac{1}{2}gM[\bar{X}^{+}X^{+}H+\bar{X}^{-}X^{-}H+\frac{1}{c^{2}_{w}}\bar{X}^{0}X^{0}H]
      +\frac{1-2c^{2}_{w}}{2c_{w}}igM[\bar{X}^{+}X^{0}\phi^{+}-\bar{X}^{-}X^{0}\phi^{-}]
      +\frac{1}{2c_{w}}igM[\bar{X}^{0}X^{-}\phi^{+}-\bar{X}^{0}X^{+}\phi^{-}]
      +igMs_{w}[\bar{X}^{0}X^{-}\phi^{+}-\bar{X}^{0}X^{+}\phi^{-}]
      +\frac{1}{2}igM[\bar{X}^{+}X^{+}\phi^{0}-\bar{X}^{-}X^{-}\phi^{0}]$

      1. \[
        \begin{array}{rcl}
        w- \mathrm{ln}|ap^{2}H+e^{ar}|&=&\mathrm{ln}|y|-\mathrm{ln}|N|\\
        w &=&\mathrm{ln}|(ap^{2}H+e^{ar})\cdot \frac{y}{N}|\\
        e^{w}&=&(ap^{2}H+e^{ar}) \cdot \frac{y}{N}\\
        e^{w} \cdot N &=& ap^{2}Hy+e^{ar}y\\
        ap^{2}Hy &=& e^{w}N-e^{ar}y\\
        Happy &=& Ne^{w} – ye^{ar}\\
        \end{array}
        \]

  3. stress vector $\mathbf{T^{(n)}}$ across an imaginary surface perpendicular to unit vector $\mathbf{n}$, $\mathbf{T^{(n)} = n \cdot \sigma}$ where $\mathbf{\sigma}$ is the Cauchy stress tensor.

    1. Excellent. Many standard objects and terms from mechanics have an equivalent expression in geometry—for instance, the “left Cauchy strain tensor” in solid mechanics is effectively the “induced Riemannian metric” in geometry. Learning to speak and translate between these two languages can be quite valuable, especially when it comes to leveraging various numerical algorithms for computation.

  4. $$C = \left[0,1\right] \setminus \bigcup_{m=1}^{\infty} \bigcup_{k=0}^{3^{m-1} – 1} \left(\frac{3k+1}{3^m}, \frac{3k+2}{3^m}\right)$$

    The middle-thirds Cantor set, which is a great source of counterexamples.

Leave a Reply